The availability of appropriately trained, well-deployed and motivated human resources is critical for an efficiently functioning, sustainable health system. Health workers with the potential to deliver health interventions to their populations are key to improving health outcomes (Anand & Barnighausen, 2004). Thirty-six countries in sub-Saharan Africa have severe shortages of health works. At least 2.3 trained health care providers are needed per 1,000 people to reach 80 percent of the population with skilled care at birth and child immunization coverage. This Policy Brief is a response to the theme of the 15th Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union (19 – 27 July 2010), held in Kampala, Uganda. The title of the theme was, Maternal, Infant and Child Health and Development in Africa. This Brief is also a response to the goals of the New partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)(2001).