1. We, Heads of State and Government of the European Union (EU) and Africa, the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, the President of the African Union (AU) and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC), met in Brussels on 2-3 April 2014. We took as our theme "Investing in People, Prosperity and Peace", with the objective of addressing common challenges and bringing concrete benefits to our citizens in accordance with the Joint Africa-EU Strategy (JAES). Recognising the high degree of interdependence between Africa and Europe and guided by the shared principles of equal partnership and joint ownership, we take particular pride in the breadth and depth of our partnership, which is firmly rooted in our shared values of democracy, the respect for human rights, rule of law and good governance as well as the right to development.
2. We reaffirm our commitment to the objectives set out in the Joint Africa-EU Strategy adopted at our Summit in Lisbon in 2007. We take note of the very real progress made, including in the Tripoli Declaration of our third Summit in 2010, and reaffirm our determination to give a new momentum to our partnership. We agree to mobilise resources to this end.
3. Since 2010, important developments have taken place on our continents.
4. Africa has achieved significant progress in democracy, governance and human rights which however remains to be consolidated. Africa has experienced pronounced economic growth: a growing number of countries and people are reaching middle income status and attracting increased investment flows. Yet this growth has not been sufficiently inclusive or even, both between as well as within countries. The Continent continues to face significant challenges.
Africa is celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Organisation of African Unity/African Union. There is an opportunity for a transformation at continental, regional and national levels to ensure that Africa's potential is realised and its economic integration achieved in a sustainable manner and in line with the AUC Strategic Plan 2014-2017 and Africa’s Transformation 2063 Agenda. This will enable Africa to become a key player in the global arena.
5. The EU economy suffered a recession but returned to a path of growth in 2013. Job creation will remain a serious challenge and an important priority, especially in providing employment opportunities for young people. The EU has made significant progress in strengthening the architecture of its Economic and Monetary Union, deepening its Single Market, implementing the Treaty of Lisbon and undertaking structural reforms by Member States to pave the way for smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth as well as for regulating their financial sector.
6. We are convinced that the growth of our two continents will be mutually beneficial: our economies remain closely linked, and 6.we will work to ensure that the growth of the one will help the other. We are also convinced that trade and investment and closer economic integration on each of our continents will accelerate that growth.
7. People must remain at the heart of our partnership, so we pledge today to provide them with the opportunities they need. It is the essence of our partnership that we tackle these challenges more effectively if we tackle them together, to the benefit of our citizens. Our joint agenda will have people, prosperity and peace and security at its core.
Peace and security
8. Peace and Security are essential prerequisites for development and prosperity. In Africa and in Europe, conflict and instability can undermine all our efforts to reduce poverty and to accelerate growth. We pledge to ensure a transparent, democratic, accountable and peaceful environment for those we represent, and to uphold our common values and goals in pursuit of good governance, democracy and the rule of law. We commit ourselves to respect all rights and principles set out in the Treaties and Charters that we have respectively signed and ratified, and to work together in all countries to respect our peoples' demands for justice, reconciliation, respect for international law, human rights, gender equality and dignity.
9. We reaffirm our commitment to peace and security on both our continents in conformity with the aims and principles of the United Nations Charter.
10. We confirm our rejection of, and reiterate our commitment to, fight impunity at the national and international level. We undertake to enhance political dialogue on international criminal justice, including the issue of universal jurisdiction, in the agreed fora between the two parties.
11. We strongly support the African aspiration and commitment to ensure peace, security and stability in Africa, in the framework of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). In order to improve the African capacity to predict and prevent or respond to crises, we are committed to operationalise the multidimensional African Standby Force and to recognise the African Capacity for Immediate Responses to Crises (ACIRC), as a transitional and complementary tool to the African Standby Force for further enhancing the AU's capacity to respond rapidly to crises, and to reinforce the support to the Continental Early Warning System. We welcome the progress made to date in enhancing the capacity of the AU and regional organisations to manage crises on the continent. We acknowledge the successful deployment of peace support operations by the AU in Darfur (Sudan), Somalia, Mali and the Central African Republic, and the collective efforts in the Great Lakes and South Sudan to reduce conflict in those countries. We pay tribute to those who have lost their lives fighting to preserve peace or who suffered as victims of those conflicts.
12. We agree to support these efforts to enhance African capacities in the field of peace and security through the range of means at our disposal, with a particular focus on capacity- building. This should enable African partners such as the AU, regional organisations and individual countries to better provide for security and stability in their own regions. The African Peace Facility has played a crucial role in supporting AU operations and the APSA, so we agreed to sustain the level of resources available to it and to seek ways of redefining targets, while complementing it with African resources. Within the framework of the EU's comprehensive approach to tackling conflicts and its causes, and building on experiences of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and operations, such as those in Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and the Central African Republic, the EU remains committed to work in close collaboration with Africa, in the framework of the APSA, in support of African led peace operations and, more generally, African efforts in areas like Security Sector Reform, Border Management, Peacebuilding or Post-Conflict Reconstruction or Reconciliation, through the provision of advice, mentoring and training. In addition, the supply of equipment is an option, either as a complement to CSDP missions and operations or as part of stand-alone measures.
13. We undertake to strengthen our common efforts to fight international terrorism, its related threats and transnational organised crime, including the trafficking of human beings, wildlife, natural resources, and drug smuggling.
14. We remain committed to combat the spread of small arms and light weapons as well as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
15. We continue to work together to fight illegal fishing and illegal dumping of toxic waste.
16. We undertake to cooperate more closely in preventing conflicts and further agree on the importance of tackling the root causes of instability, fragility and conflict in order to prevent its recurrence and achieve sustainable recovery in line with the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding, as well as AU initiatives in this area. We support post- conflict reconstruction, so that after each conflict, efforts are undertaken for populations to benefit from peace dividends.
17. We underline the importance of addressing all aspects of the conflict cycle from preventive action through to post conflict reconstruction and development. We agree that justice and nationally inclusive reconciliation processes are crucial for sustainable peace and pledge to support efforts of African partners and regional organisations in this respect.
18. We reaffirm our willingness to protect women and children affected by armed conflicts, prevent sexual violence particularly affecting women and children, and promote gender mainstreaming in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts and crises and in all stages of the peace-building process, in line with the UN Security Council resolution 1325.
19. We recognise the particular importance of tackling growing threats to maritime safety and security, including piracy. We acknowledge the international efforts off the coast of the Horn of Africa in which the EU naval operation Atalanta has been playing a key part. In this regard, we agree that emphasis should also be placed on addressing poverty and underdevelopment as possible causes of piracy. In order to achieve concrete results we undertake to work together to support the building of local maritime and judicial capacities to deal with these threats, in line with Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy 2050 and with the EU Integrated Maritime Policy, through CSDP mission EUCAP Nestor and by enhancing regional cooperation in both the Horn of Africa and in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa and the EU recognise and encourage initiatives taken by African countries bordering the Atlantic with a view to promoting peace and security in that area.
20. In responding to these threats to peace and security on our two continents, we recognise the vital importance of the international community acting together. We therefore reaffirm our determination to ensure that multilateral institutions and treaty regimes are the main fora for international cooperation on peace and security. Essential for success is close cooperation between ourselves, with the relevant regional and sub-regional organisations, the UN and its agencies, and with other international coordination mechanisms such as the G8++ clearing house for Africa.
21. We are committed to addressing non-traditional challenges to peace and security in areas such as climate change, water, energy and cybersecurity which have an increasing influence on economic and social development.
22. Moreover, we recognize the need for further reform of the main UN bodies to make the whole UN system more efficient and transparent and adapt it to substantial changes that have occurred in the international community and for members of the UN.
23. We pledge ourselves to pursue policies, together with social partners, that will create jobs and stimulate environmentally sound, inclusive, sustainable and long-term growth on both continents.
24. In Africa, such policies shall promote economic transformation based on agriculture, green growth, industrialisation and value addition, the development of economic infrastructure and the service sector. We stress the importance of good governance at the highest level and of a conducive international environment including the international economic and financial institutions as elements contributing to the achievement of sustained and inclusive development and economic growth.
25. We will cooperate more closely in the field of maritime policy, especially blue growth, protection of the marine environment and biodiversity, maritime transport and maritime safety and security.
26. The EU and Africa are determined to adopt, in Paris in 2015, a fair, equitable and legally binding Agreement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and guided by its principles, which will apply to all parties and come into effect by 2020 at the latest. This Agreement should have a more universal and more efficient scope to produce results in terms of mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, transparency of action and support and capacity building. The EU and Africa are committed to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their intended nationally determined contributions towards achieving the ultimate objective of the Convention and to communicate them well in advance of the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties by the first quarter of 2015, by those parties ready to do so. The EU is determined to support Africa in this regard.
27. The EU recognises that developed country parties should maintain continuity of mobilisation of public finance at increasing levels from the fast-start finance period in line with their joint commitment of mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020 from a wide variety of sources in the context of adaptation and meaningful mitigation and transparency of implementation.
28. The EU will continue to support African countries in the preparation of national and regional climate-resilient and low-emission development strategies to reinforce the resilience of their economies to climate change, in particular in sectors such as agriculture and access to sustainable and renewable energy in the context of the United Nations Sustainable Energy for all Initiative.
29. We recognise the vulnerability and the specific challenges faced by Small Island Developing States (SIDS), some of which are in Africa. We take note of the upcoming Conference organised for their benefit by the UN in Samoa and we will work together to making it a success.
30. We recognise that investment in research, science, technology and innovation is fundamental to achieve those objectives in particular, and to sustainable development of our societies in general. With this in mind, we welcome the High Level Policy Dialogue on science, technology and innovation held between the two continents.
31. We want to foster strong domestic growth and use our respective resources efficiently to our people's advantage in the global economy. The transformation of agriculture to provide food resilience, food and nutrition security and a dynamic commercial sector is particularly important in Africa. To this end, we therefore agree to support in the framework of NEPAD the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme whose objective is notably to achieve higher growth by developing a better functioning agriculture market and to ensure region-wide food security. We take note of developments in the EU Common Agricultural Policy and we will work towards achieving progress as regards coherence with the objectives of agricultural development in Africa.
32. Proactive measures are required to address the problems of land degradation, desertification and drought affecting many regions in Africa. We take note of the signature of a cooperative arrangement between our two Commissions to use European space science and technology to monitor ecosystems through the "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and Africa" initiative.
33. We recognise that preserving existing and creating new jobs including in the manufacturing sector is a high priority for both continents. Faster industrialisation and modernisation of the enterprise sector is essential for many African countries which is to be premised inter alia on the transformation and value-addition of raw materials at the source as a catalyst for industrial development which is essential to reach middle income status. We commit to ensure prudent and transparent management of respective natural resources in the interest of our populations in particular in conflict affected areas in line with principles of good governance. In order to complement the African policies in the above fields, the EU recalls its approach to responsible mineral sourcing and proposes a dialogue on these issues.
34. We will continue our cooperation to preserve biodiversity and ecosystems on both continents.
35. We pay particular attention to how to encourage greater investment within our countries, between our continents and from outside. There is a need to improve the business climate in order to make it favourable for attracting internal and foreign investors and for existing businesses, including small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which have a particularly vital role in job creation. Access to affordable credit, stable political, judicial and regulatory environments, and labour markets respecting international labour standards are important factors in all our countries. So too is promoting corporate social responsibility and building greater transparency in finance to help combat corruption and illicit financial flows, including through the development of fair and effective tax systems.
36. To allow for the economies of scale that can stimulate such investment and growth, we confirm our strong belief that greater economic integration is necessary. Important elements to this include building productive supply capacity to take advantage of more fair and open trade, building up the markets to facilitate it, and putting in place the necessary infrastructure and governance reform measures for investments to be successful. We look to the private sector, in partnership with government, to play a larger role in economic growth and development.
37. On the way to greater economic integration, we will cooperate to develop transport, access to drinking water and to sustainable and affordable energy, with a particular focus on renewable energy and energy efficiency. We recognise the strategic importance of promoting interconnections in the areas of energy and transport between the two continents.
38. We also recognise the important and strategic role of the 'virtual' infrastructures enabled by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), in particular the internet. We agree to further boost the uptake of ICT and the roll-out of an inclusive, open and secure information society that contributes to growth, development and the full enjoyment of human rights. We recognise the importance of the protection and promotion of Human rights on line, in conformity with the Universal Declaration and relevant international treaties on Human Rights, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights.
39. We fully commit to the successful conclusion of the Doha Development Agenda and to the preparation of the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) post-Bali work programme which contributes to the greater integration of developing countries into the multilateral trading system. We will take all possible steps towards realising this commitment in line with the respective mandates on developing countries issues. The EU remains committed to support African countries engaged in the accession process to the WTO and we are committed to the implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement.
40. The EU pledges its support to the AU decision to fast track the establishment of a Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) in Africa and offers to draw on its experience of building the Single Market to provide capacity support to this initiative. We will continue working on outstanding Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the aim to foster intra-African trade, Africa's regional integration efforts and the planned CFTA. In this regard, both parties should continue negotiations on EPAs by exploiting all the possibilities to reach a satisfactory conclusion of development-oriented and WTO-compatible EPAs that promote African integration, economic transformation and industrialisation, and ensure the prosperity of nations to the benefit of both continents. It is important that Africa and Europe develop globally competitive industries that can succeed in today's global markets and contribute to sustainable development. EPAs should be structured to ensure that our trade expands and that it supports growth of intra-regional trade in Africa.
41. The EU and concerned North African countries are also committed to continue bilateral negotiations for Deep and Comprehensive Free-Trade Areas that will expand market access in areas not yet fully open.
42. We will explore modalities to exchange information on the implementation of trade agreements and their implications for Africa’s regional integration and industrial development agenda.
43. It is time for a fundamental shift from aid to trade and investment as agents of growth, jobs and poverty reduction. There is nevertheless still a valuable role for development assistance; we acknowledge the EU decision to maintain the level of its development assistance including aid for trade. We pledge to work together to make aid more effective.
44. We fully acknowledge the positive contribution to our debates from the EU-African Business Forum that took place in the margins of our Summit. We therefore support such engagements between the private sectors of our two continents on a regular basis.
45. Upholding human rights in Africa and Europe is our duty and we will work together to ensure that the African Human Rights Year in 2016 is a success. Aware of the fact that the AU’s vision is the realisation of “An Integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena” and also taking into consideration the national dynamics of each African country, we will increase cooperation in support for international human rights and international humanitarian law. We shall hold regular consultations on civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. We shall pay particular attention to gender equality, the rights of the most vulnerable groups, including people with disabilities, the elderly and refugees, as well as to women, youth and children's rights.
46. In the framework of our cultural cooperation we pledge to continue efforts in fighting the illicit trade in cultural goods and to work towards protecting national archives.
47. We are jointly committed to pursue our efforts towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by next year (2015). We are convinced that the post-2015 development agenda provides a unique opportunity to realise our common vision of a peaceful, just and equitable world that is free of poverty and respects the environment. We will work in partnership, during the upcoming negotiations, to support the definition and implementation of an ambitious, inclusive and universal post-2015 development agenda that should reinforce the international community's commitment to poverty eradication and sustainable development. We underline the need for a coherent approach which embraces the three dimensions of sustainable development – social, economic and environmental – in a more balanced and integrated manner, based on peace and security, and democratic, responsive and accountable institutions. In the spirit of our partnership, we will continue to cooperate closely in this endeavour.
48. All should be able to enjoy the dignity of work. We emphasise that jobs with labour rights, social security coverage and decent income contribute to more stable growth, enhance social inclusion and reduce poverty. We aim to unlock the entrepreneurial potential of our people with a special emphasis on women and youth - and to foster innovation in their businesses, so they can develop themselves, their communities and the wider economy. We confirm that as previously stated the achievement of these objectives will be accomplished by investing in science, technology and innovation and we commit to support cooperation in these fields.
49. We commit ourselves to equip our citizens insofar as we can with the knowledge, skills and services they need to take advantage of the opportunities that growth provides and lift the neediest from poverty. To that end, we will pursue policies that will promote inclusive job creation with a focus on young people and women, including through vocational training and education.
50. Higher education has a particularly important role to play in enhancing citizenship and democratic values as well as providing a country with the skilled workers, managers and administrators that will foster sustainable development and encourage the trade and investment needed. We agreed to promote student exchange programmes between our two continents and within Africa.
51. Providing affordable, sustainable and quality health care accessible to all, including access to medicines, is a particular challenge. We agreed to address it by intensifying our existing bi- and multilateral cooperation to give adequate attention to the development of productive capacity with particular emphasis on youth empowerment, women empowerment and gender equality, the eradication of poverty, education for developing human capital and the provision of universal and equitable access to quality healthcare.
52. Migration, mobility and employment are key issues for us all. The serious social and human impact of irregular migration should be effectively tackled in a comprehensive way, including by addressing its root causes and among other means by ensuring an effective and concerted return policy between countries of origin, transit and destination.
53. We are appalled by the loss of life caused by irregular migration and remain more than ever committed to further action to avoid such tragedies in future. We reiterate our unambiguous commitment to continue fighting trafficking in human beings, which is a new form of slavery.
54. We are committed to ensure that human rights of all migrants, including those of the diaspora and victims of trafficking, are fully respected. We recognise the positive contribution that well-managed migration and mobility make to countries of origin, destination and to the migrants themselves. We will work together to mobilise the potential of migrants for development and to reduce the cost of remittances, including through the consolidation of the African Institute for Remittances. We set out our approach in more detail in the attached statement.
55. We are committed to fight all forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia, and all acts of intolerance on both continents.
56. We affirm our commitment to join our efforts on pursuing the objectives of Africa and EU policies on labour employment and social protection with particular focus on SMEs.
57. We take note of the Africa-EU civil society organisations' forum meeting of October 2013 and of the youth forum of April 2014.
58. We took note of the scope and progress of our Partnership.
59. We reaffirm our desire to hold regular political dialogues at ministerial level, notably in the margins of international events.
60. We endorsed the Roadmap that sets out strategic priorities and identifies the means to implement them in areas of mutual interest and have agreed that our priorities for the period 2014-2017 are:
- Peace and Security;
- Democracy, Good Governance and Human Rights;
- Human Development;
- Sustainable and inclusive development and growth and Continental Integration;
- Global and emerging issues.
61. We will jointly pursue the identification, where needed of the working mechanisms and structures required to implement the agreed actions and reach the expected results.
62. We take note that implementation of the priorities will draw on a wide range of financing instruments and policy initiatives. Over the period 2014-2020, more than € 28 billion will be provided by the EU to Africa which will come in addition to bilateral cooperation on the part of EU Member States.
63. We agreed to meet again at our Fifth Summit in Africa in 2017.
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