Environmental crime and corruption are some of the most serious challenges confronting Africa. Environmental crime typically refers to any breach of a national or international environmental law or convention that exists to ensure the conservation and sustainability of the world’s environment (Elliot, 2007). Environmental crimes often have transnational dimensions and involve organized criminal groups who engage in other crimes such as money laundering, corruption, and fraud, with a major influence on the global economy and security. Environmental crime, of which the illegal wildlife trade is a part, is the world's fourth largest crime sector1, affecting many different wild animal and plant species. It involves organized crime groups benefitting from high profits, low risk of detection and low penalties. Wildlife crime is a development issue; it undermines the rule of law, threatens peace and security is facilitated by corruption.